Saggi di naturali esperienze fatte nell’Accademia del cimento

The Florentine thermometers are descibed in the records of the Accademia del Cimento (Experimental Academy), a center for experimental study of nature founded in 1657 by Galileo’s pupils Giovanni Borelli and Vicenzo Viviani. A glass sphere was extended to a tube and filled with grain alcohol. Before the tube was sealed, levels corresponding to the temperature of snow and of summer heat were marked and the interval divided into 100 parts. Archduke Ferdinand, the sponsor of the Academy, used the instrumen for weather measuring as well as for setting temperature in fowl incubators. Different alcohol thermometers, Lorenzo Magalotti, Saggi di naturali esperienze fatte nell’Accademia del cimento sotto la protezione del serenissimo principe Leopoldo di Toscana e descritte dal segretario di essa accademia (Essays on Natural Experiments Performed in the Accademia del cimento under the Protection of His Highness, the Grand Duke Leopold of Tuscany and Described by the Secretary of the Academy (Florence: Giuseppe Cocchini, 1666), Smithsonian Institution Library,